The mining and chemical industry of the national economy of Russia with regards to the production, processing and use of zeolites and zeolite containing substances has a relatively short history: 33-35 years.
It is based on the discovery in the 70s and 80s, in many regions east of the Urals, of large stocks of zeolites (more than 3 billion tons). The initial stage of development of this multi-mineral saw a large number of very successful and unsuccessful ventures, and excessive optimism in determining the prospects of and timing of making this a reality. It has to be said that all the problems of the large-scale introduction of zeolites in Russia reflect the strengths and weaknesses of the general trends of the world economic system, including technologically advanced countries like the US, Japan, France and others.
A well-known scholar and authority in the field of chemical engineering Donald Breck said - "Rarely in our technological society, has the opening of a new family of inorganic materials caused such scientific interest and a wide development of applications, as in the case of zeolites." With a lot of attention to the zeolites they could be said right up to this day to be the future of minerals or the “unrecognized stars” among "the most intelligent of minerals."
NATURAL BEAUTY IS THE REALITY, NOT A MYTH!
One of human basic necessities is craving for being healthy and beautiful. Since prehistoric times, people have been dreaming about immortality and eternal youth. As soon as human beings appeared on the Earth, they started looking for miraculous recipes of all kinds for preserving health and beauty. Beautiful people were considered to be living gods and were worshiped. What about our days? Letâ€™s face it! If we speak about beauty in general and the beauty of our skin in particular, we are greatly influenced by advertising, even not thinking what the cosmetics so much advertised turn out to be, be those expensive or from mass market.
Widely spread traditional methods and means of skin care only ensure the looks of healthy skin are copied, impregnating the skin with organic and inorganic substances which contribute only to the temporary similarity of a problem-prone and healthy skin. In this case the skin only seems to be renewed, but, indeed, it does not recover its main purpose, i.e. regulate the interaction between the human organism and the environment.
Often, feeling the skin quality when touching or visually examining its appearance after treating it with traditional means, you are only testing the quality of fatty base in the beauty product which was used to fill in the pores of your skin and which soon will be removed thanks to the remaining ability of your skin to remove useless substances. Actually, your skin didnâ€™t get better in this case. Every woman once in a while has probably used the most expensive cosmetic programs, carefully following all the advice of beauticians. Can many women prove that after six months or a year of carefully following the recommendations on cosmetics use, their skin has visually changed to the best? Probably not. In the morning without cream and make up, we are to fight down disappointment that aging of our skin is inexorable
CHEMICALS IN COSMETICS
Sterility and resistance to microbial contamination are among the key requirements to all modern beauty products. Most of
cosmetic compositions (not only creams, but also shampoos, lotions, deodorants and even toothpastes) are all perfect nutritive media favourable not only for skin cells, but also for microbial growth. And, as long as bacteria and fungus spores are always present in the air, special agents called bacteriostats, or preservatives, should be incorporated in beauty products to ensure their stability. The problem is that preservatives used for bacteria elimination should definitely be toxic substances and, hence, they can produce toxic effects on skin cells as well. Moreover, many preservatives are known to significantly retard skin regeneration processes. And, while young growing organisms are somehow capable of overcoming this impact, it can be a serious problem for those who have passed the 35 year mark, as this can result in progressive skin ageing. Therefore, there is a good reason to say that preservatives which are indispensable cosmetic components are at the same time the main skin enemies.
Parabens (synthetic esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid) are the most popular preservatives which are considered to have the lowest impact on skin. Despite their widespread use in cosmetic formulations, many health care professionals are seriously concerned about the safety of these preservatives, including potential remote effects of their use. For example, according to the results of the latest scientific research, methylparaben commonly used as a bacteriostatic agent (which has the lowest toxicity of all the parabens) in concentration of 0.1% has shown to almost completely hinder epidermal cells division (i.e. division of cells in the skin outermost/protective layer).
Analysis for parabens in urine of the general U.S. population was conducted which detected parabens in more than 70% of urine samples; trace amounts of parabens were also found in human tumour tissues. This means that the mentioned bacteriostatic agents are not degraded completely in human body and can be accumulated in tissues when used on a regular basis as part of cosmetic formulations. According to a number of researchers, parabens can affect endocrine system. It should be taken into account that in pregnant women parabens can result in impaired production of testosterone during fetal development of male babies.
Another bad news with regard to preservatives and antimicrobial agents such as triclosan is that these substances can deeply interfere with bacterial equilibrium typical for human skin, the microbiome, which is involved in defense response of the human body. Therefore, beauty products with high amounts of parabens and other bacteriostatic agents should be avoided.
Cleaning agents, more accurately, such surfactants as lauryl sulfates and Tweens, cause great harm to skin as well. These substances degrease the skin and when used often can cause skin dryness and cracking. Many of us have experienced such cosmetic problems as skin dryness, early lines and wrinkles, dull and dry hair, and dandruff which won’t go away.
SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE (SLS)—A DANGEROUS INGREDIENT
Sodium lauryl sulfate is an anionic surfactant used as a detergent in cosmetics and cleaning products, as well as in industrial chemical products. SLS is often called a natural substance in descriptions of many cleaning agents, because it is derived from palm oil. Unfortunately, this is not true. Sodium lauryl sulfate is synthesized by treating lauryl alcohol solution produced from coconut oil by sulfur trioxide gas or chlorosulfonic acid. The resulting product is then neutralized with an alkaline solution. SLS is the abbreviation of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate.
Green Peace experts have summarized the results of research studies carried out by European scientists which prove that everyday use of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) can be dangerous for health. Synthetic ingredients of cosmetic and cleaning products, when used systematically, tend to accumulate in the skin and enter the blood stream; their regular ingress into the human body may have various adverse effects. Health care professionals nowadays have a strong opinion that the increase in allergic diseases observed all over the globe is associated with the excessive use of synthetic detergents. Our living environment is undergoing rapid and dramatic changes. Reduction of government control over industrial production is bringing about environmental pollution which cannot have anything but negative impact on public health, and we have to admit that SLS today is one of such pollutants.
SLS toxicity studies have been going on for more than 45 years thus far; however, this chemical production is yet growing every year. This ingredient is found in shampoos, toothpastes, face creams, liquid soaps, shower gels, shaving foams, etc. It is merely impossible to avoid SLS in our everyday life. It is incorporated in 95% of all commercial shampoo and toothpaste formulations; likewise it is used as a component of powdered laundry detergents, dishwashing detergents and carpet cleaners. Paying close attention to the composition of household cleaning products that we buy is the only way to avoid repeated contact with this very harsh detergent. Scientific studies of absorption, metabolism and excretion have found that SLS can destroy cell membranes made up of lipids. SLS can penetrate deep into skin even at low concentrations. Exposure to SLS results in damage of the skin lipid barrier which in turn impairs the skin water holding capacity and leads to water loss, skin dryness and irritation, as well as hair follicle damage and hair loss. As a result of its regular application, SLS tends to accumulate in cardiac, lung, liver, and brain tissue. SLS is particularly harmful for young children, as it can damage eye cornea and even cause cataract. A typical detergent formulation contains 1 to 30% of sodium lauryl sulfate.
A study by Dr. Keith Green of the Medical College of Georgia (6) linked SLS to cataract and increased nitrate absorption.
As part of commercial cleaning products, SLS easily interacts with triethanolamine, another synthetic ingredient, forming nitrosamines, which are highly toxic substances and potent mutagens. Recent studies have shown that SLS impairs production of a number of skin structure proteins, causes lipid synthesis imbalance and affects lipid metabolism (7). We all witness the rapid expansion of obesity epidemic in the modern society, and it is important to understand that overuse of detergents and the resultant skin delipidization can trigger a response reaction in our body.
If you still have not learned to wash your face and brush your teeth using natural mineral compositions which are nicely adapted to our bodies, then at least try to reduce the SLS amount entering your blood stream. When washing with synthetic cleaning products keep their contact with your skin to a minimum. For example, dermatologists recommend when washing your hair to apply the shampoo and make foam in 8-10 seconds, then wash it off for 20-30 seconds or, alternatively, take a soap made under ancient techniques using animal fat.
So, where is the way out of this no-win situation? What should we do and how should we take care of ourselves? How to preserve beauty without losing health?
Beauty Secret dry cosmetics manufactured by LN-Cosmetics Research and Production Laboratory contains no synthetic ingredients such as parabens, sodium lauryl sulfate, etc. Beauty Secret products are based on lithocomplexes and mineral-and-salt compositions which, when used as key ingredients, do not mask the defects of our skin, but restore its natural, native features and properties, and regulate the functions of skin as an independent and one of the most important organs of the human body.
Skin is a vital organ of the human body.
The science dealing with skin has greatly developed over the last decade. Skin is the largest barrier organ in the human body; with an area of 1.5-2 m2, it protects us from negative environmental impacts,radiation, with bacteria and viruses, with mineral salts and insoluble particles. Every environmental factor produces a corresponding skin reaction; however, its defenses have their limits. Immune response is closely related to migration of leukocytes and regulation of skin structural proteins exchange. Human skin is a multilayered organ. The upper visible skin layer is called epidermis, its thickness comprises just one tenth of a millimeter, and its condition depends completely on the performance of the deeper, dermal, skin layer of approximately two millimeter thickness. The outer surface of epidermis is made up of a very dense layer, stratum corneum, which comprises scales representing the remainders of epidermic cells. On the average, for every 100 epidermal cells there is one immune cell (Langerhans cell) akin to the cells of thymus gland. Langerhans cells are responsible for skin immune response, including protection from bacteria and viruses, and occurrence of different allergic reactions. The next layer is called dermis (inner skin) made up of thick connective tissue comprising a network of collagen and elastic fibers, blood capillaries, lymphatic vessels, nervous and pigment cells, sebaceous and sweat glands, as well as hair follicles.
Dermis condition is determined by collagen, a fibrillar protein, which is the main structural element of connective tissue (comprising 72% of the dermis dry weight). When collagen is constantly renewing and retains water well, dermis maintains its normal thickness. As a result, such skin is elastic, and epidermis receives a good nutrition, which provides active cell division and a fresh and healthy appearance of the skin.
The deepest skin layer is represented bysubcutaneous fat. Subcutaneous fat can vary in thickness in different parts of our body. It consists of loose connective tissue having free spaces filled with fat lobules. This layer protects us from bruises, acts as a 'bed' for internal parts of our body, and provides skin mobility. To maintain an active state of skin, it is necessary that epidermal and dermal cells receive sufficient amount of nutrients, divide properly and synthesize structural proteins and polysaccharides, such as hyaluronic acid. Moreover, it is necessary to ensure adequate exfoliation of keratinized skin cells: if this function is impaired, skin becomes rough and dull.
However, horny layer peeling should be performed very carefully in order not to damage a tender lipid barrier, which protects skin from moisture evaporation. The better stratum corneum can retain moisture, the younger look the skin has.
Solicitous attitude toward skin is essential, as its top layers contain numerous external (peripheral) immune protection cells. According to the recent studies by Russian and foreign researchers, elderly people have impaired feedback mechanisms between the skin and the immune system organs, which is indicated by inability to engage T-cells (8) in protective functions. Such defects can be reverted completely; we can make skin produce the missing signals again to attract T-cells using complex microparticles for this purpose.
Cosmetics is an art of beautification. All kinds of beauty products are primarily designed to improve our looks, i.e. to hide the defects of the outermost skin layer, the epidermis, including improving its color, smoothing out skin roughness and maintaining its elasticity. Yet, since epidermis condition and appearance depends fully on underlying causes, such as nourishment, blood supply, cell renewal, high quality cosmetics must first of all maintain natural functions of skin rather than amend its appearance. To keep our skin looking young, we need some means capable of helping in renewal of all the skin structures. For example, normally epidermis is completely renewed every three weeks, therefore, its cells should divide and its outermost corneous layer should exfoliate on a regular basis. If a beauty product hinders these processes, it actually works against you.
It is known that white lead and antimony salts were used for face makeup not that long ago,
and those are highly toxic substances. Nowadays many beauty products contain definitely hazardous ingredients as well, which is unfortunately not reported on their labels. For example, all sunblock creams with high values of sun protection factor (SPF) (more than SPF 25) contain very toxic synthetic sunscreens.
The key skin care method is its cleansing. Proper skin hygiene is important to maintain a normal physiological state of skin, as its surface is being constantly contaminated by accumulating dirt and dust which precipitate on our body from the air, by dead cells of the epidermal corneous layer, by secretory products produced by sebaceous and sweat glands, as well as by many other skin contaminants. To enhance the skin excretory function, it is necessary to wash the whole body on a regular basis; it will help sebaceous and sweat glands to work properly and will keep your body nice and clean. To maintain its beauty, our body needs as much attention as our face does. It is known that every day human skin releases through sweat glands about 0.5 liter of water at room temperature, and up to 10-12 liters under the conditions of high temperature combined with physical work. Body perspiration, i.e. sweating, is the primary route of thermoregulation; sweat contains various metabolites, biologically active and toxic substances such as: protein degradation products, acetone, bile pigments, sodium and calcium salts. These metabolites should be removed from the skin surface, as they can be used as nutritive medium by pathogenic germs which cause inflammation.
Clean skin provides a better body protection from sun radiation and bacteria, and also helps to maintain a constant body temperature more effectively. On the other hand, contaminated skin cannot manage the mentioned tasks, which makes its owner suffer from excessive heat, infection or intoxication. However, it should be noted that some personal hygiene products, when used often for washing, can destroy corneal layer; therefore, when establishing washing schedule and selecting cleaning agents, individual skin characteristics should be always taken into account. Usage of various synthetic ingredients in cosmetics, cleaning agents and personal care products formulations increases negative burden on the whole body rather than just on skin, and many cosmetic procedures damage stratum corneum, increasing the risk of toxic substance penetration into dermis and then further into the blood stream. Systematic deterioration of skin structure leads to its dehydration and premature aging.
Skin aging signs
What initiates skin aging? Obviously, water loss! It is known that aging skin has low moisture content, gets too thin, which results in wrinkle formation.
Skin aging is the result of cell malnutrition, together with decrease in the ability of cells to divide and to synthesize large molecules under the influence of environmental factors, particularly UV radiation. Both epidermis and dermis get thinner with age, and skin looses its density and elasticity. Most of visible age-related changes occur in deep skin layers: less new collagen molecules are formed in dermis, and 'aged' collagen forms accumulate which have a poor water retention capacity. In the meantime, increase in metalloproteinase enzyme activity can be observed which leads to decomposition of collagen, elastin, structural glycoproteins and hyaluronic acid. As a result, skin is loosing its elasticity, wrinkles are forming and face contours are changing. Skin thinning is often accompanied by changes in pigment cells, or melanocytes. These cells become larger and increase in number, which leads to formation of pigmented spots. Furthermore, haemosiderin and lipofuscin pigments can accumulate in the skin intercellular space and in epithelial cells as a consequence of metabolic disorders.
Disturbances in intercellular exchange of signaling molecules of growth factors and cytokines are taking place, in consequence of which skin injuries require more time to heal, while the skin regenerative capacity is decreasing. Skin aging starts as early as at the age of 25, which is most noticeable on face and hands, while wrong choice of cosmetics can speed up this process even more.
Skin has the following functions:
· provides thermoregulation;
· protects from mechanical injuries;
· prevents dehydration;
· resists microbial ingress;
· protects from ultraviolet radiation;
· excretes waste products and toxins out of the body.
Contemporary science states that skin is an immunocompetent organ which acts as a partition between the body internal and external environment. It does not merely protect our body, but also interacts with the external environment: with thermal and ultraviolet